Homeopathy | Wikipedia audio article


Homeopathy | Wikipedia audio article

This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article:

00:02:33 1 History
00:02:41 1.1 Historical context
00:03:46 1.2 Hahnemann’s concept
00:05:05 1.2.1 “Provings”
00:06:11 1.2.2 Miasms and disease
00:08:35 1.3 19th century: rise to popularity and early criticism
00:10:59 1.4 Revival in the 20th century
00:12:42 1.5 21st century
00:14:03 2 Preparations and treatment
00:16:23 2.1 Preparation
00:18:08 2.2 Dilutions
00:21:42 2.3 Provings
00:24:02 2.4 Consultation
00:24:50 2.5 Pills and active ingredients
00:25:28 2.6 Related and minority treatments and practices
00:26:03 2.6.1 Isopathy
00:26:13 2.6.2 Flower preparations
00:26:58 2.6.3 Veterinary use
00:27:42 2.6.4 Electrohomeopathy
00:29:33 2.6.5 Homeoprophylaxis
00:30:06 3 Evidence and efficacy
00:30:40 3.1 Plausibility
00:32:55 3.2 Efficacy
00:36:34 3.2.1 Government level reviews
00:37:23 3.2.2 Publication bias and other methodological problems
00:40:02 3.2.3 Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of efficacy
00:41:48 3.2.4 Statements by major medical organizations
00:46:26 3.3 Explanations of perceived effects
00:47:26 3.4 Purported effects in other biological systems
00:48:56 3.5 Ethics and safety
00:50:54 3.5.1 Adverse effects
00:52:32 3.5.2 Lack of efficacy
00:55:44 3.5.3 In lieu of standard medical treatment
00:59:20 4 Regulation and prevalence
01:03:34 5 Public opposition
01:06:12 6 United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) 2015 hearing
01:13:04 7 Official conclusions and recommendations
01:15:53 8 See also
01:18:01 9 References

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“I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think.”
– Socrates

Homeopathy or homœopathy is a system of alternative medicine created in 1796 by Samuel Hahnemann, based on his doctrine of like cures like (similia similibus curentur), a claim that a substance that causes the symptoms of a disease in healthy people would cure similar symptoms in sick people. Homeopathy is a pseudoscience – a belief that is incorrectly presented as scientific. Homeopathic preparations are not effective for treating any condition; large-scale studies have found homeopathy to be no more effective than a placebo, indicating that any positive effects that follow treatment are not due to the treatment itself but instead to factors such as normal recovery from illness, or regression toward the mean.Hahnemann believed the underlying causes of disease were phenomena that he termed miasms, and that homeopathic preparations addressed these. The preparations are manufactured using a process of homeopathic dilution, in which a chosen substance is repeatedly diluted in alcohol or distilled water, each time with the containing vessel being struck against an elastic material, commonly a leather-bound book. Dilution typically continues well past the point where no molecules of the original substance remain. Homeopaths select homeopathics by consulting reference books known as repertories, and by considering the totality of the patient’s symptoms, personal traits, physical and psychological state, and life history.Homeopathy is not a plausible system of treatment, as its dogmas about how drugs, illness, the human body, liquids and solutions operate are contradicted by a wide range of discoveries across biology, psychology, physics and chemistry made in the two centuries since its invention. Although some clinical trials produce positive results, multiple systematic reviews have shown that this is because of chance, flawed research methods, and reporting bias. Homeopathic practice has been criticized as unethical because it discourages the use of effective treatments, with the World Health Organization warning against using homeopathy to try to treat severe diseases such as HIV and malaria. The continued practice of homeopathy, despite a lack of evidence of efficacy, has led to it being characterized within the scientific and medical communiti …
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